For example, kissing might be an early step in the American pattern but a relatively intimate act in the English pattern.
Communications theorist Paul Watzlawick used this situation, where "both American soldiers and British girls accused one another of being sexually brash", as an example of differences in "punctuation" in interpersonal communications.
He wrote that courtship in both cultures used approximately 30 steps from "first eye contact to the ultimate consummation", but that the sequence of the steps was different.
Charles Francis Badini created the Original Fanology or Ladies' Conversation Fan which was published by William Cock in London in 1797.
The use of the fan was not limited to women, as men also carried fans and learned how to convey messages with them.
In this sense, flirting plays a role in the mate-selection process.