Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel.
The Greek conquests largely skipped the region without any resistance or interest.
Incorporated into the Ptolemaic and finally the Seleucid empires, the southern Levant was heavily hellenized, building the tensions between Judeans and Greeks.
When the city fell, around 60,000 people were massacred, including 6,000 Jews seeking refuge in a synagogue.
At this time, a full thousand years after the fall of the Jewish state, there were Jewish communities all over the country.
The earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt (dated to the late 13th century BCE).