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Departures from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Multiple locus Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium Assortative mating Inbreeding Evolutionary Forces Mutation Selection Drift Migration Combining forces Chapter Summary Supplemental Resources Section II: Variation in Genes, Simple Genetic Traits, and DNA Markers Chapter 4: Blood Group Polymorphisms *Antigens, Antibodies, and the Immune System *The immune system *Innate immunity Acquired immunity (adaptive immunity)Genetic Polymorphisms in the Blood ABO, Hh (FUT1), Secretor (FUT2), and Lewis (FUT3) Systems The ABO histo-blood group system Hh (FUT1) and Bombay The secretor system (FUT2)The Lewis system (FUT3)*Explorations in Diversity: Histo-Blood Groups and Diet Geographical Distribution and Natural Selection of the ABO Histo-Blood Group System Cholera Syphilis (treponemal diseases) Plague Smallpox *Pathogen receptors Blood group associations Other possible selective factors and the ABO system The Rh System The Rh system and selection*Explorations in Diversity: Erythrocytes as Pathogen Decoys The MNSs Blood Group System The Duffy Blood Group System Other Blood Groups Chapter Summary Supplemental Resources Chapter 5: Serum Protein and Red Cell Enzymes Detection of Genetic Polymorphisms Some Plasma Proteins Haptoglobin (alpha-2-globulins) Transferrin (Tf) Group-specific component or vitamin D-binding protein Immunoglobulins (Gm-Am and Km)Apolipoproteins, Beta Lipoproteins, and Beta-2-Glycoproteins Other plasma proteins *Explorations in Diversity: Novel Ways to Explore Human Variation and Evolution Red Cell Enzymes Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Other enzyme systems of anthropological interest Exploring Population Structure with Classical Markers Example 1: The Irish travelers or tinkers Example 2: The origins of Indo-Europeans Chapter Summary Supplemental Resources Chapter 6: Human Leukocyte Antigen and Polymorphism The Major Histocompatibility Complex Location and Organization of the MHC Linkage Disequilibrium HLA and Disease Associations HLA and Population Diversity *Explorations in Diversity: HLA and Mate Choice?

dating human past biologically table-85

Most result from mistakes when DNA copies itself during cell division, although other types of mutations occur spontaneously or from exposure to hazards like radiation and chemicals.

In a single human genome, there are about 70 nucleotide changes per generation – minuscule in a genome made up of six billion letters.

Relethford Publication Date - March 2010 ISBN: 9780195387407 464 pages Paperback 6-1/2 x 9-1/4 inches In Stock Retail Price to Students: $99.95 The most up-to-date and authoritative book on human variation , Second Edition, opens with an engaging introduction to basic genetics and the evolutionary forces that set the stage for understanding human diversity.

It covers such current issues as the meaning and significance of "race," quantitative genetics and the "nature versus nurture" debates, biocultural interactions, population structure, and cultural and historical influences on patterns of human variation.

By applying these methods to the ever-growing database of DNA from diverse populations (both present-day and ancient), geneticists are helping to build a more refined timeline of human evolution.