The region was split into three states: Khanate of Khiva, Khanate of Kokand, and Emirate of Bukhara.
It was gradually incorporated into the Russian Empire during the 19th century, with Tashkent becoming the political center of Russian Turkestan.
With the gigantic power-generation facilities of the Soviet era and an ample supply of natural gas, Uzbekistan has become the largest electricity producer in Central Asia.
Uzbekistan lies between latitudes 37° and 46° N, and longitudes 56° and 74° E.
However, decades of questionable Soviet policies in pursuit of greater cotton production have resulted in a catastrophic scenario with the agricultural industry being the main contributor to the pollution and devastation of both air and water in the country.